Apache Arrow is an in-memory memory format for
columnar data. In more “plain” English, it is a standard on how to store
DataFrames/tables in memory, independent of the programming language. One of
its most prominent uses is for the
@pandas_udf decorator in Apache
to move data quickly between Scala and Python/pandas.
Furthermore, it also brought the reading of Apache Parquet files to the Python world. While yet known for benefiting I/O, there is not yet much analytic implemented on top of it. As the focus of Arrow is on performance, the core of the Python package is based on the C++ implementation. At the moment there are already some analytic kernels implemented. As the implementation of these functions yet only happened on the C++ level and many Python developers only want to write Python code, they were unable to extend Arrow with more functionality.
One of the main things you learn when you start with scientific computing in
Python is that you should not write for-loops over your data. Instead you are
advised to use the vectorized functions provided by packages like
major share of computations can be represented as a combination of fast NumPy
operations. But in the end, there are still some that cannot be expressed
efficiently with NumPy. In these cases ones has to resort to slow Python
As an alternative to these for-loops, people often use Cython to write compiled code that provides similar performance to NumPy operations. This provides a good combination of a Python-like language with the performance benefits of code written in C/C++. One of the disadvantages of C/C++ and Cython is that you need to compile your code ahead-of-time which is in stark contrast to the typical just-in-time interpreted Python code.
The between fast, compiled scientific code and the simple, interpreted nature of Python is closed by Numba. Numba is a just-in-time compiler based on the LLVM compiler infrastructure that inspects math-heavy Python code at runtime. It will then produce fast, vectorized native machine instructions that often even beat the performance of NumPy operations slightly.
In contrast to PyPy, Numba is not a generic Python
just-in-time compiler but is focused on accelerating code that works on
non-Python memory regions like the contents of NumPy arrays. You can apply it
to a function by using the
@numba.jit decorator. A typical example where
Numba can greatly improve the performance of your code is when you write one of
those for-loops over numerical data. Although you were always told, that they
will be horribly slow in comparison to using NumPy operations, sometimes, they
To highlight the benefits of Numba, we take a small example of an for-loop over a NumPy array. We look at two variants: a simple for-loop and the same code just-in-time compiled with Numba. You possibly will also find an implementation in NumPy without Numba for this code but we just use it here for demonstration purposes.
Profiling the pure-Python approach:
Implementing the same but using a Numba decorator this time.
This small example shows the power of Numba: A simple Python loop can be turned into efficient numerical code only by the addition of a decorator.
Numba has built-in support for NumPy arrays and Python’s
As Arrow arrays are made up of more than a single memory buffer, they don’t
work out of the box with Numba. To integrate them with Numba, we need to
understand how Arrow arrays are structured internally. As they are all
nullable, each array has a valid bitmap where a bit per row indicates whether
we have a null or a valid entry. Depending of the type of the array, we have
one or more memory buffers to store the data.
For the set of primitive types (
bool), there is simply
another buffer that contains the data, just like in a NumPy array. In the
case of strings, we have two additional buffers. There is one buffer that
contains the actual characters of all strings in the array, one string after
the next ones. To find the start and end points of the strings, we also have an
offsets buffer that contains the start index of each string in the characters
array. To reconstruct the string at position
i, we take its starting point
s_i and the one of the next string
s_i+1. The string then is represented by
the characters in
As NumPy has no native variable length string type, we’re going to use this as
an example. We want to build a fast function that returns us the lengths of all
strings in an Arrow StringArray. To represent composite memory structures and
provide operations on them, Numba provides the
decorator is applied to a standard Python class. For each member of the class,
we need to specify its native type like
numba.int32 for a scalar int or
numba.float32[:] for a float array. When the class is used in a
@jit-decorated function, objects of it can be used just like an ordinary
Python class but the generated machine code is highly optimised.
Given the above explanation, we can build a
NumbaStringArray class that
provides us a convenience interface to the underlying Arrow buffers.
In addition, we add a convenience function
dissects an existing
pyarrow.Array instance into the buffer and instantiates
the new class.
To compare the performance with NumPy, we create arrays with a million strings:
We build then two nearly equal functions that compute the individual string
lengths, one with a NumPy array, the other one on an Arrow array using Numba.
One noticeable difference here is that we can turn on the
nogil modes for the Arrow version as it does not have to deal with Python
objects. In contrast, as NumPy has no native variable-length string type, we
have resort to Python object and thus these modes are not possible.
This leads us to a near 10x performance increase while still staying in pure Python. One could probably get better performance by switching to C++ and being more careful about alignment, vectorisation, … but for a simple first pass, this is an extremely grateful result.
While this is a nice example on how to combine Numba and Apache Arrow, this is
actual code that was taken from Fletcher.
There we are in the process of building a pure-Python library that combines
Apache Arrow and Numba to extend
pandas with the data types are available in
Arrow. While you need some C++ knowledge in the main Arrow project, you can get
started building fast columnar code in pure Python there.